Researching Court Records

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Researching Court Records

This article is part of a series.
Overview of Court Records
Court Procedures
Equity Cases
Divorce Actions
Types of Court Records
List of Court Record Types
Researching Court Records
Selected Proceedings and Courts
Justice of the Peace Courts
List of Useful Court References

This article originally appeared in "Court Records" by Sandra Hargreaves Luebking, FUGA, Loretto Dennis Szucs, FUGA, and Arlene H. Eakle, Ph.D. in The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy

Although some court records have been microfilmed, printed in books, or digitized, the vast majority of them have not. In most cases it is to the researcher's great advantage to visit the courthouse or the archives where the records may be stored and to search the original records personally. As mentioned previously, with the ever-enhancing technological tools available to us today, it is usually possible to at least determine the availability and access policies of a given jurisdiction before ever embarking on a trip to the courthouse. Using a home computer or taking advantage of the nearest public library, begin with an Internet search for the county court most likely to have records for the place and time period needed. Learn the dates of their holdings that are accessible, their research policy for onsite visits, and the address and open hours of the facility.

Regardless of the form in which you view the court record: original, machine copied, or compiled by a group or individual, always include a full citation of the records location and condition so that you or others can locate the source of your findings at a later date.

Searching Original Court Records


Index to equity cases, Cass County, Illinois. Photocopy of original in Cass County Courthouse, Sigourney, Illinois.

Begin an onsite search with the index to court cases-civil, criminal, or equity-whichever is pertinent to your search. Early indexes may depict only the name of the plaintiff. Since around 1840, most courts have both a plaintiff and a defendant (or reverse) index. This index will give the case number or the box in which the case file or packet (also called a case jacket) is stored.

Next, ask the clerk for the case file by the case or box number. You will receive a packet of documents folded or rolled into a bundle and secured with a string or a rubber band. In more complex cases, the case file may be in a large container. This file has the loose documents and copies of the important papers of the case.

Then examine the docket book entries, using the dates for the beginning of the case and the date it was closed by judgment, which you will find on the outside of the case file. Entries are either made numerically by case number or chronologically by date of case. A quick glance will tell you which applies. Examine all the entries for the case to see if there are other references you need to check. For example, the docket book may note: "Exhibits 1-14 in storage vault" or "Companion case, No. 4321."

From the case file, decide whether you will begin with the orders, judgments, or other documents. Wherever you find a reference to another document that does not appear in your file, seek it out. Watch carefully for evidence that the case was appealed to a higher court or that the parties settled by arbitration.

If there is not a suitable index, or no index at all, search a jurisdiction's records page by page and entry by entry. Begin on the first page for the period of time an ancestor lived in the area and work through each page. Copy all entries with pertinent data. Before using a digital camera or a photocopy machine, request the permission of the clerk. There could be rules against either. If facsimile reproduction is not available, take extreme care to transcribe all documents completely and accurately. Words or phrases that cannot be deciphered should be followed with a note to that effect in brackets. If an entry seems incorrect, such as the surname spelled differently within a single document, transcribe each appearance exactly. You can follow one of the entries with a question mark or comment-again, in brackets. Your finished copy should be as faithful a reproduction as would be a camera image or a machine copy.

By Mail or Representative

An alternative to onsite searching is to contact the courthouse or engage someone to visit on your behalf. To search by mail, request a photocopy of the indexes or dockets for the period of time and the surnames you are searching. This is a short, easy request, for which you can expect to pay a fee. When you get your index copies, order the files you wish, giving specific case numbers. It is wise to ask for a cost estimate before the files are copied, although some courts will bill you; then you can send the right amount when you order the files. Some courts will supply estimates over the telephone or by e-mail. Nearly every court or archives has a website with full contact information.

If you have an extensive list of cases to check, hire a local genealogist to search them for you and provide extracts or photocopies of both the recorded copies in bound volumes and the case files, omitting duplicate documents. Do not ask court personnel to make extensive searches for you. They have neither the time nor the interest to do a careful job, and a missed entry can be misleading. A particularly good way to find a good genealogist in the area of interest is to consult The APG Directory of Professional Genealogists current edition. The Association of Professional Genealogists (APG) also maintains an online directory of researchers.

Searching Copied Court Records

Microfilmed Copies

Many court records have been microfilmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, including some case files. They are kept in state archives and county offices. Consult the catalog of the Family History Library to determine which microfilms are in their collection. Some states and counties have microfilmed their early records to provide better access for users, without handling fragile volumes. Courthouse or archives staff should be able to provide a list of microfilming that is available only regionally.

When you use microfilm, be sure to read introductions or annotations in the catalog carefully so as to understand what may be missing from the film or problems discovered during the filming process, such as erroneous page numbering by a clerk.

Scanned or Digitized Copies

As with microfilmed versions, digitized copies of records found online or scanned copies in print form are generally considered to be faithful reproductions of the original. Rarely will someone alter the contents of these reproductions although the possibility does exist. Because of the high probability of accuracy, a scanned, digitized, or microfilmed record is considered as acceptable as the original. The limitation is that few of these reproduced versions will include every record pertaining to a particular case. For example, a will might be digitized in its entirety. But the associated papers in the case files, giving names of creditors, payments made by the executor to support a widow and children, and a full listing of the possessions of the deceased may not be digitized. Always expect there to be more records associated with a case and whenever possible, do the onsite research.

Searching Compiled Court Records

Compiled court records are those that have been hand-copied or typed and then produced in manuscript form or published online or as a printed version. Such publishing may be done by an interested researcher acting alone or from a project of an area's genealogical society or the USGenWeb team. An online search by name of county and state followed by "court records" should produce some options to explore that include both online and paper copies. While compiled records have some limitations to consider, their use is both practical and valuable.

Value of Compiled Court Records

While it is best to rely upon original documents for research accuracy, there are many benefits to first viewing a compiled version. One obvious value is availability. Many transcripts were created during the nineteenth century and predate the loss or destruction of the originals. Although the quality varies widely, these transcripts may represent the only existing copies of some of the records.

Another benefit is indexing. Most transcribed works are fully indexed, providing the names of all witnesses, jurors, court personnel, attorneys, and litigants. In addition, they usually give the volume and page number of the original record and sometimes the case number. Thus, the published volumes can serve as an effective and more complete index to the originals.

Finally, a carefully prepared copy can aid in comprehension. The unfamiliar handwriting of a court clerk, the prevalence of legal terms, Latin and French words, unknown abbreviations, and fading ink can make original court records difficult to read. A well-trained, experienced compiler-editor can often make a better transcript than an untrained researcher. Such a copy can be used as a guide to understand the words in the original document and can thus save hours of poring over hard-to-read documents.

As a result of these circumstances, published transcripts can prove invaluable to the researcher who recognizes the limitations of such compilations and uses them wisely. One of the most important aspects to wise use is to understand the format in which the copied material is presented.

A compiler of published court records, online and in print, has at least three format options in which to present the content. These are abstracts, extracts, or verbatim transcriptions. Each format has value and limitations. One key question for the user of a printed or online record is: does the copied version portray a full or an abbreviated version of the original? An explanation of these three options and other data-collection standards will be found in The BCG Genealogical Standards Manual. Following is a short explanation of the formats.

Abstracts and Extracts

Extracts and abstracts are abbreviated versions of original documents; no attempt is made to copy the original entirely. Below are examples of extracted entries. The numbers in parentheses refer to the original page numbers.

March 16, 1779
(400) Garrat Wheeler exempted from levy.
(402) Elizabeth, wife of James Thorpe, soldier in the Continental Army, with small children, allowed L25.
(406) Commission for priv. examination of Mille, wife of Charles Cummins, as to deed to Robert Cummins.
(406) Joseph Crouch as Captain, Jacob Warwick and Alexr. Maxwell as First Lieutenants - qualified.
(407) Elizabeth Wilson, soldier's wife, with small children, allowed L20.
(407) Admn. of estate of William Wallace granted widow Jane.
(408) Court appoints John Graham guardian of Joseph Graham, orphan of David Graham.<ref>Lyman Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement in Virginia, Extracted From the Original Court Records of Augusta County, 1745'1800, 3 vols. (1962; reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1965).</ref>

Note that the format of each extracted entry is similar. The compiler has included certain elements of identification that enable the researcher to recognize an individual or event. An extract is a precise copy of one or more parts or sections of a document.

An abstract usually offers more detail. An abstract summarizes essential points or important details from a document. It shows those key elements in an abbreviated format and omits the boilerplate language. An example of an abstract is:

Abstract from Records of the Court of Sessions of Westchester County (New York)
Bayley v. Baly
December 1st 1691/1692 Mary Bayly by Mr. Antill complaint against husband Nathan Baly with warrant to appear on December 17 at Westchester Court.

One can readily see that neither the extract nor the abstract gives the full and complete text of a document. Furthermore, in both cases it is the compiler (extractor or abstractor) who decides what information to present. And the compiler may or may not be a genealogist. Therefore, it is prudent to consult the original record for additional detail as well as for the accuracy of the prepared copy.


Verbatim transcripts record every word with original punctuation and spelling. The editor will indicate in brackets any additions made by him or her. The following is an example:

Records of the Court of Sessions of Westchester County (New York): (Westchester Historical Society Publications, Vol. 1)
At a Court of Sessions held at Westchester for Ye County of Westchester by their Maj[es]ties Authority p[r]esent John Pell Justice & Quorum presed[en]t of the Court: John Palmer Justice of ye peace & Quorum & Daniel Strang & William Barnes Esqrs Justices of ye peace Decem[ber] ye 1st: 1691 - absent Joseph Theale Esqr Justice of ye Peace [1692 crossed out: 1691 inserted]
The Court opened
The Grand Jury Called & Appeared (Viz.)
Robert Hustead John fforgeson
John fferis Senjor Robt Hustead Junjor
John Mullenax John Hadden Senjor
Joseph Hunt Edwd Hadden
John Hunt John Winter
John Quinby Junjor Tho. Bedient
John Baly Samll Palmer
William Chadderton
The Court Adjurnes till Thursday morning Constables Called
Eastchester x
Rochell Same
Momoroneck x
Rye x
& per younkers x
Bedford x all absent but westchester Rochell Same

[Page 2]

Mary Bayly Enters a Compl[ain]t against her husband Nathan baly by Mr. Antill her Atturney by petition
[next is crossed out] the Court hears the Complt and orders that Nathan Baly shall be sent for by a special warr[an]tt & that he appear on ye 17th Instant to Answer ye above said Complt directed to ye Sherrif or his Deputy And if he doth not appeare at the time appointed at westchester Court the matter is deferred for further Examination unto Justice pell & Justice Theale.<ref>'Records of the Court of Sessions of Westchester County (New York),' Westchester Historical Society Publications 1 (1924): 33, 44 ff.</ref>

Annotated transcripts are verbatim transcriptions with records from other courts, case files, and/or court opinions to reconstruct the whole case. (Rarely, however, are all papers in the case file used.) Each of these formats offers value to the researcher. The potential, however, for copying errors or inadvertent omission of important detail makes it necessary to consult the original version whenever possible.

Once the researcher understands the format chosen by the compiler-and the possibility of omission of detail or associated records-it is time to evaluate the quality of the work. Note the comments of one editor concerning a series of transcriptions:

In reproducing these old records the manuscript has been faithfully followed, even when this means repeating obvious slips made by the old scribes, such as omissions of words, repetitions of words, or the use of words clearly wrong. The only liberty taken with the original text has been . . . to supply in brackets the missing word or words, where the old paper . . . has left enough letters of the defective word to justify this.<ref>'Introduction,' in Archives of Maryland: Proceedings of the Court of Chancery of Maryland, 1669'1679, vol. 51 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1934).</ref>

The attention to detail evident in the above quote is a strong indication of a quality transcription.

Finding Compiled Court Records

As suggested earlier, an Internet search either on your home computer or at the nearest public library is the best way to get an overview of what has been published and where the published records can be found and used. Unfortunately, there is no complete bibliography of titles or websites containing compiled records. A search of the online catalog of the regional library would be helpful as would use of Below are some suggestions about other places to look.

  1. Published state archives. Most of the original colonies/states authorized publication of original court records in series called archives. Such compiled volumes as Pennsylvania Archives and Maryland Archives are examples. Complete sets are available in several large research libraries and some are available online. Consult Benjamin Barnett Spratling III, "Court and Legal Records," in Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records, for a state-by-state (and colony) guide to compilations of this nature.<ref>Benjamin Barnett Spratling III, 'Court and Legal Records,' in Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records, ed. Kory L. Meyerink (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998), 438'66.</ref>
  2. Local histories, particularly those published around the turn of the nineteenth century, may contain extracts or transcribed court records. Some are accurately reproduced with careful indexes; some have many errors. Be sure to check for appendixes, special sections of documents, and quotations in the middle of town and family sections. Early histories are becoming more accessible due to digitization, so use sites that feature these publications.
  3. Abstracts, extracts, indexes, and complete transcripts of court records can be found in journals, occasional publications, annual volumes, and special series. These can be accessed through a search of the Periodical Source Index, referenced in chapter 3, "General References and Guides."
  4. William Jeffrey Jr., "Early New England Court Records: A Bibliography of Published Materials," contains a listing of the records published, the dates covered, name of court; title, author, and bibliographic data of printed volume; description and index; brief analysis of editing done and omissions.<ref>William Jeffrey Jr., 'Early New England Court Records: A Bibliography of Published Materials,' American Journal of Legal History 1 (1957): 119'47, reprinted from the Boston Public Library Bulletin.</ref>
  5. Evarts B. Green and Richard B. Morris, A Guide to the Principal Sources for Early American History (1600-1800) in the City of New York, contains a separate section of printed sources, including court records, found in various record depositories in New York City. They are arranged by subject and thereunder by state and locality.<ref>Evarts B. Green and Richard B. Morris, A Guide to the Principal Sources for Early American History (1600'1800) in the City of New York, 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967).</ref>
  6. Bradley Chapin, Criminal Justice in Colonial America, 1606-1660, is a valuable description of courts and their jurisdictions and specific crimes for which punishment was meted out before 1660 in America.<ref>Bradley Chapin, Criminal Justice in Colonial America, 1606'1660 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983).</ref> The author includes a list of selected cases and a full bibliography of early sources. Since there are no printed reports, few indexes, and missing volumes for this period, the list is especially valuable. The genealogist who is searching for an American ancestor in this early period will benefit from a careful study of this book.
  7. Volumes of court records have been published privately, by societies, archives, universities, and the trade press. For example, Joan W. Peters Military Records, Patriotic Service, & Public Service Claims from the Fauquier County, Virginia, Court Minute Books, 1759-1784.<ref> Joan W. Peters, Military Records, Patriotic Service, & Public Service Claims from the Fauquier County, Virginia, Court Minute Books, 1759'1784 (Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, 2004).</ref>

Finding Early Laws

It is useful to know what laws were in effect in a state at the time an ancestor lived there. Hein's Session Laws of American States and Territories: A Compilation of All States and Territories, 1775-2003<ref>William S. Hein and Co., Session Laws of American States and Territories: A Compilation of All States and Territories, 1775'2003. Update 4 A Complete Checklist (Buffalo, N.Y.: William S. Hein and Co., 2005), microfiche.</ref> is the most complete coverage of all fifty states, as well as the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. This is the original record of each state's legislative sessions. A companion work for pre-1775 is Colonial Session Laws, which is also published by William S. Hein and Company. Copies can be found at most major law libraries. A list of the contents of this publication, which comprises more than 88,000 microfiche, is online as of January 2006. An earlier, though still useful, collection of microfiche may be more readily available at smaller libraries: Session Laws of the American States and Territories Prior to 1900.<ref>Redgrave Information Resources Corp., Session Laws of the American States and Territories Prior to 1900 (Westport, Conn.: Redgrave Information Resources Corp., 53 Wilton Road, Westport, CT 06880).</ref> For laws not cited in full, references to the revisions in each state law code are given, providing a reference to follow the changes backward in time. The years for which printed laws are available are summarized below.

State Colony Special Laws Territory State Miscellaneous
Alabama 1818 1819-99
Arizona 1864-99
Arkansas 1818-35 1836-99
California 1849-99
Colorado 1861-76 1876-99 Jefferson Territory, 1859-61
Connecticut 1639-73 1776-1899 Special acts, 1837-99
Dakota 1862-89
Delaware 1704-41 1776-1899
Florida 1822-45 1845-99
Georgia Dates not given 1787-1899
Idaho 1863-88 1890-99
Illinois 1809-17 1818-99
Indiana 1801-51 1816-99
Iowa 1838-45 1846-98
Kansas 1855-61 1861-99
Kentucky 1792-1898
Louisiana 1812-99 District (under jurisdiction of Indiana Territory), 1804; Territory of Orleans, 1804-11
Maine 1820-99 Resolves, 1820-39; private and special acts, 1820-49
Maryland Dates not given 1777-1898
Massachusetts Dates not given 1777-1899 Resolves, 1776-1838
Michigan 1821-35 1835-99
Minnesota 1849-57 1857-99
Mississippi 1799-1816 1817-98
Missouri 1813-18 1820-99
Montana 1864-89 1889-99
Nebraska 1855-67 1866-99
Nevada 1861-64 1864-99
New Hampshire 1680-1726 1783-1899
New Jersey 1703-22 1776-1899
New Mexico 1846-99
New York Dates not given 1777-1899
North Carolina 1669-1751 1777-1899
North Dakota 1889-99
Northwest 1788-1801
Ohio 1803-98
Oklahoma 1890-99
Oregon 1890-99
Pennsylvania Dates not given 1776-1899
Rhode Island 1647-1719 1776-1899
South Carolina 1692-1734 1776-1899
South Dakota 1890-99
Tennessee 1796-1899 Territory of the U.S.A. South of the River Ohio, 1792-95
Texas 1846-99
Utah 1851-94 1896-99
Vermont 1778-1898
Virginia 1776-1899
Washington 1854-87 1889-99
West Virginia 1861-99
Wisconsin 1836-48 1848-99
Wyoming 1869-90 1890-99
To find session laws, use items 1 and 2, found at law and large university libraries.
1. John D. Cushing Session Laws of the American States and Territories Prior to 1900. Selected reprints by colony or state are available from
2. William S. Hein & Co., Inc. Session Laws of American States and Territories: A Compilation of All States and Territories, 1775'2003. Update 4: A Complete Checklist. A companion work for pre-1775 is Colonial Session Laws by the same publisher.
3. The Historic State Codes Preservation Project of the Georgetown Law Library is making scanned titles of early state laws available. Their collection contains 960 titles, approximately 50% of the historic state codes identified in print as of 2006. A list of titles scanned and in progress, and purchasing instructions, are at

Check with state archives and historical societies for publications that provide the early laws of their respective states. One example of many is the printed work by the Historical Bureau of the Indiana Library and Historical Department, The Laws of Indiana Territory, 1801-1809. Many early references of this nature are online with searchable text, such as the Archives of Maryland's Legislative Records (1634-2000s) at or Alabama legislative records at, or H. P. N. Gammel's The Laws of Texas, 1822-1897, which consists of documents covering each congressional and legislative session and including the constitutions and early colonization laws. The first ten volumes of The Laws of Texas are available from the University of North Texas Libraries at Some states archives assemble and publish historical laws on a particular subject. "Missouri's Early Slave Laws" (laws from Missouri Territorial to 1850s) are explained at

Federal session laws are published at the conclusion of each session of Congress as United States Statutes at Large. This is considered the official source for the Public and Private session laws of the United States Congress. Browseable and index-searchable facsimile image files of the Statutes at Large from 1789 to 1875 are offered by the American Memory project of the U.S. Library of Congress. The earlier statutes are online at "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation".

Not only do early sessions laws help in the interpretation of court and other records researchers use, but many of these collections include what are termed private laws, such as a name change or the granting of a divorce that occurs in the early legislature of a state. Tracing the history of a law is not difficult. Most law libraries are open for public use. A call before you go can verify public access, hours of operation, availability of copy machines, and fees (if any).



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